Data_Sheet_1_Spatial Clustering of Receptors and Signaling Molecules Regulates NK Cell Response to Peptide Repertoire Changes.docx

Natural Killer (NK) cell activation requires integration of inhibitory and activating signaling. Inhibitory signals are determined by members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, which have major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands. Loss of this inhibitory signal leads to NK cell activation. Thus, down-regulation of MHC I during viral infection or cancer induces NK cell activation. However, NK cell activation in the presence of MHC-I has been demonstrated for HLA-C*0102 through changes in its peptide content: “peptide antagonism.” Here we identify an antagonist peptide for HLA-C*0304 suggesting that peptide antagonism is a generalizable phenomenon and, using a combination of mathematical modeling, confocal imaging, and immune-assays, we quantitatively determine mechanisms that underlie peptide antagonism in inhibitory KIR2DL2/3 signaling. These data provide a mechanism for NK cell activation based on a reduction of inhibitory signaling in the presence of preserved levels of MHC class I.