Data_Sheet_1_Soil Bacteria Isolated From Tunisian Arid Areas Show Promising Antimicrobial Activities Against Gram-Negatives.docx

<p>Arid regions show relatively fewer species in comparison to better-watered biomes, but the competition for the few nutrients is very distinct. Here, in total 373 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizospheric soils obtained from three different sampling sites in Tunisia. Their potential for the production of antimicrobial compounds was evaluated. Bacterial strains, showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria, were isolated from all three sites, one strain from the Bou-Hedma national park, 15 strains from Chott-Djerid, and 13 strains from Matmata, respectively. The dominant genus was Bacillus, with 27 out of 29 strains. Most interestingly, 93% of the isolates showed activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative test bacteria. Strain Bacillus sp. M21, harboring high inhibitory potential, even against clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, was analyzed in detail to enable purification and identification of the bioactive compound responsible for its bioactivity. Subsequent HPLC-MS and NMR analyses resulted in the identification of 1-acetyl-β-carboline as active component. Furthermore, fungicides of the bacillomycin and fengycin group, which in addition show antibiotic effects, were identified. This work highlights the high potential of the arid-adapted strains for the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites and suggest further investigation of extreme environments, since they constitute a promising bioresource of biologically active compounds.</p>