Data_Sheet_1_Longitudinal Recordings Reveal Transient Increase of Alpha/Low-Beta Power in the Subthalamic Nucleus Associated With the Onset of Parkinsonian Rest Tremor.pdf

Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that different subcortico-cortical circuits control different aspects of Parkinsonian rest tremor. The basal ganglia were proposed to drive tremor onset, and the cerebellum was suggested to be responsible for tremor maintenance (“dimmer-switch” hypothesis). Although several electrophysiological correlates of tremor have been described, it is currently unclear whether any of these is specific to tremor onset or maintenance. In this study, we present data from a single patient measured repeatedly within 2 years after implantation of a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system capable of recording brain activity from the target. Local field potentials (LFPs) from the subthalamic nucleus and the scalp electroencephalogram were recorded 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Importantly, the patient suffered from severe rest tremor of the lower limbs, which could be interrupted voluntarily by repositioning the feet. This provided the unique opportunity to record many tremor onsets in succession. We found that tremor onset and tremor maintenance were characterized by distinct modulations of subthalamic oscillations. Alpha/low-beta power increased transiently immediately after tremor onset. In contrast, beta power was continuously suppressed during tremor maintenance. Tremor maintenance was additionally associated with subthalamic and cortical power increases around individual tremor frequency. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of distinct subthalamic LFP modulations in tremor onset and tremor maintenance. Our observations suggest the existence of an acceleration signal for Parkinsonian rest tremor in the basal ganglia, in line with the “dimmer-switch” hypothesis.