Data_Sheet_1_Kinetic Modeling of pH-Dependent Oxidation of Dopamine by Iron and Its Relevance to Parkinson's Disease.pdf

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. While age is the most significant risk factor, the exact cause of this disease and the most effective approaches to mitigation remain unclear. It has long been proposed that dopamine may play a role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease in view of its ability to generate both protein-modifying quinones such as aminochrome and reactive oxygen species, especially in the presence of pathological iron accumulation in the primary site of neuron loss. Given the clinically measured acidosis of post-mortem Parkinson's disease brain tissue, the interaction between dopamine and iron was investigated over a pH range of 7.4 to 6.5 with emphasis on the accumulation of toxic quinones and generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results show that the presence of iron accelerates the formation of aminochrome with ferrous iron (Fe[II]) being more efficient in this regard than ferric iron (Fe[III]). Our results further suggest that a reduced aminochrome rearrangement rate coupled with an enhanced turnover rate of Fe[II] as a result of brain tissue acidosis could result in aminochrome accumulation within cells. Additionally, under these conditions, the enhanced redox cycling of iron in the presence of dopamine aggravates oxidative stress as a result of the production of damaging reactive species, including hydroxyl radicals.