Data_Sheet_1_Functional Analysis of the Chemosensory Protein GmolCSP8 From the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).docx

Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) belong to a family of small water-soluble proteins that can selectively bind and transport odorant molecules for olfactory communication in insects. To date, their definite physiological functions in olfaction remain controversial when compared with odorant binding proteins (OBPs). To investigate the functions of CSPs in the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, we determined the tissue expression patterns and binding properties of the CSP, GmolCSP8. The key binding sites of GmolCSP8 with a representative ligand were evaluated using molecular flexible docking, site-directed mutagenesis and ligand-binding experiments. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that GmolCSP8 possesses a typical conserved four cysteines motif and shares high sequence identity with some CSP members of other Lepidopteran insects. GmolCSP8 was predominantly expressed in the wings and antennae of both male and female adults and may be involve in contact chemoreception. Recombinant GmolCSP8 (rGmolCSP8) exhibited specific-binding affinities to small aliphatic alcohols (C4–12) and had the strongest binding affinity to 1-hexanol. The three-dimensional structure of GmolCSP8 was constructed using the structure of sgCSP4 as a template. Site-directed mutagenesis and ligand-binding experiments confirmed that Thr27 is the key binding site in GmolCSP8 for 1-hexanol binding, because this residue can form hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group in 1-hexanol, and Leu30 may play an important role in binding to 1-hexanol. We found that pH significantly affected the binding affinities of rGmolCSP8 to ligand, revealing that ligand-binding and -release by this protein is related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Based on these results, we infer that GmolCSP8 may participate in the recognition and transportation of 1-hexanol and other small aliphatic alcohols.