Data_Sheet_1_Extracting Reproducible Time-Resolved Resting State Networks Using Dynamic Mode Decomposition.PDF
Resting state networks (RSNs) extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans are believed to reflect the intrinsic organization and network structure of brain regions. Most traditional methods for computing RSNs typically assume these functional networks are static throughout the duration of a scan lasting 5–15 min. However, they are known to vary on timescales ranging from seconds to years; in addition, the dynamic properties of RSNs are affected in a wide variety of neurological disorders. Recently, there has been a proliferation of methods for characterizing RSN dynamics, yet it remains a challenge to extract reproducible time-resolved networks. In this paper, we develop a novel method based on dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) to extract networks from short windows of noisy, high-dimensional fMRI data, allowing RSNs from single scans to be resolved robustly at a temporal resolution of seconds. After validating the method on a synthetic dataset, we analyze data from 120 individuals from the Human Connectome Project and show that unsupervised clustering of DMD modes discovers RSNs at both the group (gDMD) and the single subject (sDMD) levels. The gDMD modes closely resemble canonical RSNs. Compared to established methods, sDMD modes capture individualized RSN structure that both better resembles the population RSN and better captures subject-level variation. We further leverage this time-resolved sDMD analysis to infer occupancy and transitions among RSNs with high reproducibility. This automated DMD-based method is a powerful tool to characterize spatial and temporal structures of RSNs in individual subjects.