Data_Sheet_1_Dengue Virus Infects Primary Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells.PDF

During the epidemic of the dengue virus (DENV) infection in Taiwan in 2014 and 2015, we observed an abnormally high frequency of increased scalp hair shedding in infected individuals that could not be explained by telogen effluvium. In this study, the mechanism of hair loss caused by DENV was explored. Human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) are essential for hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Thus, we established an in vitro DENV infection model in HFDPCs. On immunofluorescence analysis, HFDPCs that were susceptible to DENV infection responded to type I interferon (IFN) treatment, and the cells showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), revealed an inflammatory response in DENV-infected HFDPCs. In particular, DENV infection impaired cell viability, and it activated caspase-associated cell death signaling in HFDPCs. In conclusion, our data indicate that direct infection with DENV causes inflammation and cell death in HFDPCs, which is involved in the mechanisms of hair loss after DENV infection. The knowledge of DENV infection in an immune-privileged tissue, such as hair follicles, may suggest their use for further studies on post-dengue fatigue syndrome (PDFS).