DataSheet_1_Butyrate Improves the Metabolic Disorder and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Mice Induced by a High-Fat Diet.xls

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is one of the major causes of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Gut microbiome diversity and its natural fermentation products are not only correlated with MS and CAD, but their correlations also appear to be stronger than the associations with traditional risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a new potential pathway for the natural fermentation product butyrate to improve MS and to examine whether it is associated with serum metabolic profiles and gut flora composition.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 400 mg/kg of sodium butyrate for 16 weeks. Blood and fecal samples were collected, and the metabolite concentrations and 16s rRNA were measured with liquid chromatography–MS and Illumina platform, respectively. The plasma differential metabolites and gut microbiome composition were analyzed with XCMS online and QIIME 2, respectively.

Results: Gut microbiome-derived butyrate reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, resisting HFD-induced increase in the relative abundance of f_Lachnospiraceae, f_Rikenellaceae, and f_Paraprevotellaceae. Meanwhile, sodium butyrate increased the levels of α-linolenate, all-trans-retinal, resolvin E1, and leukotriene in the plasma, and the differential pathways showed enrichment in mainly resolvin E biosynthesis, histidine degradation, lipoxin biosynthesis, and leukotriene biosynthesis. Moreover, sodium butyrate increased the levels of phosphorylated-adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) in the adipose tissue.

Conclusion: Butyrate can induce AMPK activation and GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue, improving cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related metabolic disorder, resisting HFD-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis, and promoting resolvin E1 and lipoxin biosynthesis. Oral supplement of the natural fermentation product butyrate can be a potential strategy for preventing CVD.